- Review of migration and resettlement in Bangladesh: effects of climate change and its impact on gender roles
- Stakeholder Mapping for Adaptation in Deltas
- A method to assess migration and adaptation in deltas: A preliminary fast-track assessment
- Report on Round 1 of DECCMA Stakeholder Engagement
- Resettlement and Rehabilitation: Indian Scenario
- Review of national adaptation policies, India
- Review of West Bengal State Adaptation Policies, Indian Bengal Delta
- Migration in the Ganga-Brahmaputara-Meghna Delta: a review of the literature
- A framework for the design and evaluation of adaptation pathways in large river deltas
- Migration in the Volta Delta: a review of the literature
- Migration in the Indian Bengal Delta and the Mahanadi Delta: A review of the literature
- Setting the scene: National and deltaic migration trends in India, Bangladesh and Ghana
- Scoping report on adaptation initiatives in Bangladesh, Ghana and India
- Review of Adaptation Related Policies in Ghana
- Review of Odisha State Adaptation Policies, Mahanadi Delta
- DECCMA’s approach to the incorporation of gender
- DECCMA Delta Adaptation Inventory
- Observed Adaptation in Deltas
- Validation of Regional Climate Model simulations for the DECCMA project
- Selection of climate model simulations for the DECCMA project
- Designing Adaptation Policy Trajectories
Selection of climate model simulations for the DECCMA project.
Authors: Tamara Janes & Ian Macadam
Summary: In assessing the impacts of future climate change in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna, Mahanadi and Volta deltas, the DECCMA project uses information on how the climate of the relevant river basins and coastlines might change as the 21st century progresses. However, future climate changes cannot be known precisely and have a degree of uncertainty. A practical approach to account for this uncertainty is to consider a limited number of plausible scenarios for future climate changes. This working paper describes how, for each area of interest, three different but plausible scenarios for future climate change were obtained from results from computer climate model simulations.
Validation of Regional Climate Model simulations for the DECCMA project.
Authors: Ian Macadam and Tamara Janes
Summary: To inform work on the impacts of future climate change in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna and Mahanadi deltas, the DECCMA project has run three detailed computer climate model simulations to provide data representing how the climate of south Asia might change as the 21st century progresses. However, climate models are not perfect representations of the real climate. This working paper reveals realistic aspects of the modelling and highlights some potential deficiencies that may be relevant to its use in the assessment of climate change impacts. It presents a brief comparison of the output of the modelling with observational temperature and precipitation datasets.
Observed Adaptation in Deltas.
Authors: Emma L. Tompkins, Natalie Suckall, Katharine Vincent, Rezaur Rahman, Adelina Mensah, Tuhin Ghosh, Somnath Hazra.
Summary: [This Working Paper accompanies the DECCMA Delta Adaptation Inventory.] This paper reviews the observed adaptations in the three DECCMA deltas: the Volta in Ghana, the Mahanadi in India, and the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna in India and Bangladesh. It first describes the method used to collate the evidence of adaptations, then presents the raw data collected within the DECCMA project, as well as the limitations of the inventory before we draw some general conclusions.
DECCMA Delta Adaptation Inventory.
Authors: Emma L. Tompkins, Natalie Suckall, Katharine Vincent, Rezaur Rahman, Adelina Mensah, Tuhin Ghosh, Somnath Hazra
Summary: This inventory contains 122 documented examples of observed adaptations from DECCMA’s four study sites. Of these, 93 relate to the Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna delta (85 from Bangladesh and 8 from the Indian Bengal Delta), 14 refer to the Mahanadi Delta (India), and 15 to the Volta Delta (Ghana) Please refer to the associated Working Paper for further interpretation of the dataset. For more information about any country dataset, please contact the relevant co-author of this paper.
DECCMA’s approach to the incorporation of gender.
Authors: K. Vincent & T. Cull.
Summary: The paper provides an overview of DECCMA’s gender-sensitive design; how the design was elaborated; and the ongoing steps to ensure that the aims and objectives are met through a gender-sensitive research process.
Review of Odisha State Adaptation Policies, Mahanadi Delta.
Authors: Somnath Hazra, Sunita Dey, Asish Kumar Ghosh.
Summary: Odisha, being one of the maritime states on the east coast of India, witnessed several historical devastating cyclones and other tropical storm surges, and with the process of climate change, it is considered one of the most vulnerable areas in the region. The Mahanadi Delta region in Odisha faces serious threats and challenges to safeguard land based resources and coastal resources supporting millions of coastal population in terms of climate change and related impacts viz. intense tropical cyclones, coastal erosion, land submergence, coastal inundation. The present situation demands attention and early actions for resilience to the impact of climate change through effective policy/plan changes. The present document summarises the adaptation activities mentioned in the reviewed state government policies/plans; and provides suggestions to the government regarding future actions to build resilience and help combat climate change impacts. This policy/plan review focuses on accumulating integrated efforts towards the objectives of climate change adaptation in the related sectoral policies/plans viz. Coastal Management, Agriculture, Energy, Construction, Disaster Risk Reduction, Forestry; this will further help build up an array of government supported adaptation options, better resilience structure and effective adaptive capacity of the coastal population in the delta. This review of government policies/plans for the state of Odisha, addresses the scope of climate change adaptation options and its related sectors for Mahanadi Delta. Further, this document provides evidence of the existing government initiatives towards reduction of climate change impacts and the adoption of specific alternatives, in the form of climate change adaptation options required through a new policy/plan or a corrigendum of existing policies/plans
Review of Adaptation Related Policies in Ghana
Authors: Adelina Mensah, Kirk Anderson, Winfred Nelson
Summary: This adaptation policy report is based on a systematic review of the spectrum of climate change related national adaptation policies and plans in Ghana that are especially relevant for the Volta delta , the focus of the five-year Deltas, Vulnerability and Climate Change: Migration and Adaptation (DECCMA) project. The project is being implemented by a consortium of five countries with research in three deltas of Africa and Asia – the Volta basin in Ghana, the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta in Bangladesh/India and the Mahanadi in India. The overall objective of the project is to examine the vulnerability and adaptation options of communities in deltas under a changing and variable climate and assess the dynamics of migration as a potential response, in order to deliver policy support for effective adaptation. This policy report will support the results from an earlier report on adaptation options in the Volta delta, a desk-based survey of documented records on current or observed adaptation options by communities or individuals, specifically in the Lower Volta, to the impacts of climate change. The policy results will allow for comparison of policy choices and adaption options across the three DECCMA deltas.
Scoping report on adaptation initiatives in Bangladesh, Ghana and India.
Authors: Katharine Vincent & Tracy Cull
Summary: The report scopes and documents all adaptation finance initiatives available in each DECCMA study site. The report contains six main sections. Section two outlines the major international adaptation finance sources (including both multilateral and bilateral sources) – focusing on those that encourage open applications from countries. Section three highlights adaptation finance sources in the deltas, including their eligibility criteria and application process. It also highlights ongoing projects in Bangladesh, Ghana and India that have been financed through these various mechanisms. Section four gives a brief overview of climate readiness support activities that have taken place in each DECCMA country. Section five looks at national climate finance mechanisms, focusing on Bangladesh and India’s national funds (Ghana has yet to develop a national fund). Section five provides a brief analysis of gender and adaptation finance. Specific details of a full range of funds are provided in Annex One. Information is correct as of 31st December 2015 but, given the dynamic nature of the climate finance landscape, is subject to change. An updated version will be available in December 2016 to reflect changes during that period Given that the international adaptation finance initiatives available in each delta are broadly the same, this is all summarised in one report, as opposed to one for each of the four deltas. The report informs the third aim of the DECCMA project, to “Lead to the development of gender-sensitive adaptation funding proposals in the four deltas”
Setting the scene: National and deltaic migration trends in India, Bangladesh and Ghana.
Authors: C. Mortreux & H. Adams
Summary: The relationship between vulnerability to change in delta communities and existing migration patterns in each of DECCMA’s delta regions is not clear. Before assessing the impact of climate change on migration from the delta communities it is important to first have an understanding of current migration patterns in the deltas, and how they fit in their national contexts. With this in mind, there are four objectives of this literature review on migration: 1) review theories relevant to understanding migration in deltas; 2) review the literature on migration from each of the case study countries with a view to understanding broad migration patterns; and 3) identify existing gaps in the migration literature so as to strengthen the research contribution of the DECCMA project.
Migration in the Indian Bengal Delta and the Mahanadi Delta: A review of the literature.
Authors: Clare Lizamit Samling (Centre for Environment and Development), Shouvik Das (Jadavpur University) and Sugata Hazra (Jadavpur University).
Summary: This Working papers examines the trends of and reasons for migration of humans in the Indian Bengal and Mahanadi deltas, as discussed in existing literature. Migration over past several decades from Indian Bengal Delta and Mahanadi Delta have occurred due to better livelihood opportunities and earning better income. Such migrations however, are triggered by ability to have level of higher education or through acquisition of vocational skills. Many educated men and women from interior of Indian Bengal Delta have long migrated to urban centres, taking opportunities for better prospects of earning. While the skilled rural workers (like plumbers) from Odisha are known to have migrated to West Bengal, over many decades, but such migration is mostly limited to the migration of the male member, who leave the families behind, send monthly remittances through postal services and visit the family back in the village at least three to four times a year.
Migration in the Volta Delta: a review of the literature.
Authors: Yaw Atiglo & Samuel Codjoe
Summary: Migration is an important distributor of Ghana’s population. It has a significant role in the socio-cultural and economic development of the population. Migration in Ghana is predominantly internal and much of it, as in other developing countries, is undocumented. Individuals migrate to escape constraints their communities face in response to available prospects. The first section of this working paper will review the dominant migration patterns in Ghana at a national level, and the second section will review existing literature on migration in the Volta Delta.
A framework for the design and evaluation of adaptation pathways in large river deltas.
Authors: Alex Chapman, Emma Tompkins, Katharine Vincent, Sophie Day.
Summary: Deltas support over 500 million people globally, with particular concentrations in southern and eastern Asia and Africa. Large sections of these deltaic populations live in extreme poverty. By nature deltas are transient environments, being formed and reformed in response to variations in sediment load. Climate change will both change fluvial patterns of erosion and deposition, and also increase exposure to coastal flooding due to their low-lying nature. Supporting adaptation for delta populations is thus essential to reduce the adverse impacts of climate change. Determining the most appropriate ways of enabling adaptation is an important policy challenge. Our aim herein is to develop and execute a framework for evaluating the impacts of alternative adaptation policy pathways for DECCMA’s four river delta systems (Volta, Mahanadi, West Bengal, and Ganges-Brahmaputra), simulated in the DECCMA (Work Package 5) system dynamics model. In particular this paper focuses on the development of different pathways of adaptation into the futures of our deltas and identifying suitable criteria against which to measure the success of those pathways.
Migration in the Ganga-Brahmaputara-Meghna Delta: a review of the literature.
Authors: Mohammad Rashed Alam Bhuiyan and Tasneem Siddiqui
Summary: This paper aims to examine the findings from previous studies and household surveys on migration in Bangladesh with an emphasis on the Ganga-Brahmaputara-Meghna (GBM) basin areas. This aim will enable both an assessment of migration trends and patterns of the country, identification of origin and destination areas, size and volume of migration, push and pull factors of both origin and destination areas (economic/social/environmental), profiling of those who stay and profiling of those who migrate (age, education, income, livelihood, health, household size), role of social network in processing migration and in settling down in destination, flow of remittances (origin – destination) and volume of remittances, assessing the migration patterns of GBM delta districts (overview of migration in/from delta past 50 years (pattern/ changes in push/pull; characteristics of migrant) and comparing GBM picture with national migration patterns, and finally the identification of gaps in the research on migration in Bangladesh and particularly on delta districts. The paper reviewed some prominent studies and household surveys on migration in Bangladesh.
Review of West Bengal State Adaptation Policies, Indian Bengal Delta.
Authors: Sunita Dey, Asish Kumar Ghosh, Somnath Hazra
Summary: The present report aims to identify, catalogue and evaluate the relevant existing State Government Policy/Plan documents on Climate Change Adaptation and related sectors (viz. Disaster Management, Agriculture, Water Resources, Forestry, Fisheries, Health, Energy, Rural Electrification, Poverty Alleviation, and Women Empowerment) in Indian Bengal Delta (IBD), in order to identify Government (State/Sundarbans Sector) Adaptation Responses to Climate Change variability, extremes and Climate Change induced threats to the population, in these islands
Review of national adaptation policies, India.
Authors: Asish Kumar Ghosh, Somnath Hazra, Sunita Dey
Summary: This report is aimed at focusing on the issue of Adaptation with reference to Climate Change in Indian National Context. India being a signatory to UNFCCC and also to Kyoto Protocol, has been playing a active role in taking appropriate initiative to support “Adaptation”, as a part of action in the mainframe National Policies; besides, featuring Adaptation in the National Environment Policy in 2006 (23), India has also effectively incorporated the subject of Adaptation in the National Action Plan Climate Change in 2008(13) and in host of cross sectoral National Policies for e.g. Agriculture (16), Water (22), Forest (19), Energy (31), Livelihood Security (29;32), etc. This document presents a synoptic review based on Critical Analysis of National Policies and Action Plan which, have referred to the issue of Adaptation due to Climate Change, as an area of consideration.
Resettlement and Rehabilitation: Indian Scenario.
Authors: Clare Lizamit Samling (Centre for Environment & Developoment), Asish K. Ghosh (Centre for Environment & Developent ), Sugata Hazra (Jadavpur University).
Summary: Displacement of people in India, is largely triggered by factors such as, development projects, political conflict, setting up Protected Area Networks and Conservation areas and natural disasters, amongst others. The International Displacement Monitoring Centre in 2007 reveal that about 50 million people in India had been displaced due to development projects in over 50 years. A study conducted in six states estimated the figure at around 60 million between 1947-2000 (Fernandes, 2007; Negi &Ganguly, 2011). The latest data in the website of Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC) show that at least 616,140 have been internally displaced in India due to various conflicts as of April, 2015. The figure for people displaced due to disasters is at least 3,428,000 and there are about 11,042 political refugees originating from the country as of January, 2014 Although, these approximate figures for displacement in India may be staggering, there remains no reliable data on the total number of people actually displaced nor the number of people that have been resettled and rehabilitated. This review highlights issues relating to resettlement and rehabilitation, majorly focusing on the following causes, political/ethnic conflict, and developmental projects.
Evaluations of Adaptation Policies in GBM Delta of Bangladesh.
Authors: Md. Izazul Haq, Meer Ahmed Tariqul Omar, Qazi Aniqua Zahra & Israt Jahan
Summary: Bangladesh will be adversely affected by the impacts of climate change. To deal with this, adaptation will be required across multiple scales from local level autonomous adaptation to planned adaptation at the national level. This paper presents an evaluation of the scope and types of adaptation policy that exist in the Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna (GBM) delta covering the period 1990-2015. Twenty-one policies and plans were selected for inclusion in this review. Our analysis shows that the overall trend of using climate change related terminologies in policy documents has risen throughout the study period (1990-2015), especially after 2009. The reason is the formulation of a number of climate change sensitive plans and policies such as the Bangladesh Climate Change and Gender Action Plan (2013), Standing Orders on Disaster (2010), National Adaptation Program of Action (2009), The Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan (2009), National Plan for Disaster Management (2010), Sixth Five Year Plan (2011) and the Perspective Plan of Bangladesh (2012).
Report on Round 1 of DECCMA Stakeholder Engagement.
Authors: Asish Ghosh, Mashfiqus Salehin, Winfred Nelson, Adelina Mensah. Ed. Nina Hissen & Andrew Allan.
Summary: This report presents the activities undertaken as part of the first round of stakeholder engagements of the DECCMA project. The activities conducted under Work Package One aimed at engaging with stakeholders at the national and the district level. The engagement activities were therefore a mix of workshops, inviting a range of stakeholders from the national policy level, as well as stakeholders from the district level which took place in the case study areas: Bangladesh (Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) delta); Ghana (Volta delta); and in India (GBM and Mahanadi deltas). This synthesis report combines the individual reports produced by country teams for each of the engagement events held in each case study area.
A method to assess migration and adaptation in deltas: A preliminary fast-track assessment.
Authors: Attila Lazar, Robert Nicholls, Andres Payo Garcia, Helen Adams, Colette Mortreux, Neil Adger, Natalie Suckall, Katharine Vincent, Chris Hill, Sugata Hazra, Barnabas Amisigo, Munsur Rahman, Anisul Haque
Summary: This interim Fast Track output is a key step to outline DECCMA’s provisional ideas and concepts, and promote a shared understanding within the project across the work packages and disciplinary boundaries. The DECCMA project seeks to understand migration within deltas: how climate change and sea-level rise might influence it, and the extent to which it serves as an effective adaptation. Furthermore, it aims to provide better evidence to inform policy makers about the possible futures of deltas, how adaptation can mediate potentially adverse impacts of climate change, and the potential role of migration as an adaptation option. An integrated assessment framework and an integrated model is proposed as a mechanism to promote integration and discussion across disciplinary boundaries.
Stakeholder Mapping for Adaptation in Deltas.
Authors: Asish Ghosh, Clare Lizamit Samling, Cynthia Addoquaye Tagoe, Winfred Nelson, Adelina Mensah, Mashfiqus Salehin, Md. Shahjahan Mondal, Chris Spray ed. Andrew Allan, Nina Hissen
Summary: The DECCMA project aims to develop the understanding and tools needed for sustainable adaptation in deltas. In this context, work package 1 (WP1) primarily aims at devising proper engagement procedures for understanding the capacity of the governance system to support migration and gender-sensitive sustainable adaptation in deltaic environments under changing climate; as well as ensuring that each delta region affords sufficient emphasis on governance and stakeholder engagement. This report focuses on the preparation of stakeholder maps for the four case study areas.
Review of migration and resettlement in Bangladesh: effects of climate change and its impact on gender roles
Author: Anwara Begum
Summary: After the successful completion of the sixth five-year plan (2010-2015), Bangladesh has been promoted to a lower-middle income country. However, this was just one of the many goals that were set – many other goals have not been successfully achieved. Bangladesh still faces several crises on multiple fronts. The majority of the population still lies in rural areas that are prone to natural disasters. The rising population and the quest for rapid urbanization (which causes people to move into the major urban centers – namely Dhaka and Chittagong) are two major issues which need to be addressed immediately. Problems pertaining to climate change, gender roles, migration and resettlement still persist. Such issues create the driving force for migration and resettlement into newer surroundings – surroundings that potentially offer better livelihoods and safety.
Designing Adaptation Policy
Authors: Natalie Suckall, Emma L. Tompkins, Craig Hutton, Attila Lazar, Abiy Kebede, Robert Nicholls, Katharine Vincent, Andrew Allan, Alex Chapman
Summary: This working paper first provides an overview of the intellectual framework that underpins the adaptation policy trajectories (section 2). We then present the method used to develop the trajectories, beginning with a description of the level of government investment and commitment to significant policy change involved with each of the trajectories (section 3), before providing a more complete narrative of each trajectory, including the specific adaptation policies that they rely on (section 4). This is followed by a reflection on the limitations of the work (section 5) before we draw some general conclusions (section 6).