A new tool to measure disaster cost

A new tool developed by National Institute of Disaster Management, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, to measure Disaster Cost

In order to gather a more accurate and scientifically developed assessment of relief and reconstruction packages for disaster-hit regions, the government of India has come up with a new scientific tool based on a UN model which will use satellite imagery and on-ground assessments to measure direct and indirect damages, besides opportunity cost lost due to disasters. The average annual economic losses due to disasters in India are estimated to be $10 billion. This cost is almost equal the sum that the country spends on education and double the amount it spends on healthcare, annually. This tool, known as the Post Disaster Need Assessment (PDNA), developed by the National Institute of Disaster Management, Ministry of Home Affairs, is ready for trial and a pilot test will be conducted in a calamity-hit region. It is likely that the government would engage the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation as part of the National Sample Survey and project predictable economic losses in disaster prone areas. Future allocation of funds made by the Centre to the states, for relief and reconstruction, will be based on PDNA assessment. Source: 19th September, 2016, Times of India, Kolkata

DECCMA invited to comment on the Draft Climate Change Action Plan of Odisha at the Mahanadi Stakeholder Workshop

The second round of State Level Stakeholder Workshop for the Mahanadi Delta, organized by Chilika Development Authority and Sansristi in collaboration with Jadavpur University (Lead Institution, DECCMA–India) was held at Bhubaneswar, Odisha on August 9, 2016.

The objectives of the workshop were to share some initial findings from DECCMA and receive stakeholder feedback on the same. The workshop also aimed to seek stakeholders’ responses to Barriers to Policy implementation in the context of adaptation and also learn what according to them should be the criteria for evaluating successful adaptation.

The stakeholders included representatives from Government Departments such as Department of Agriculture, Odisha State Disaster Management Authority (OSDMA), Forest and Environment-Climate change cell (Govt. of Odisha), ICZM Project-Odisha, Department of Revenue and Disaster Management. There were stakeholders from Utkal University and Odisha University of Agriculture Technology (OUAT), Scientific Institutions, NGOs, Network organizations, funding agencies and INGOs. District Forest Officials, Researchers and grass root civil society organizations. A total of 35 stakeholders (30 males and 5 females) attended the workshop and all signed the DECCMA Sign-In sheet as a part of the ethical considerations that the project undertakes.

Some noteworthy points that emerged from this workshop:

  • Paucity of gender disaggregated data in agriculture is an issue. Thus forming pro-gender policy is a challenge. A gender cell may come up soon to tackle the issue in a structured manner. The agriculture department is committed towards a gender inclusive policy.
  • With regard to migration, stakeholders mentioned that deltas are not only sending areas, but also receiving areas but there is paucity of data.
  • Stakeholders acknowledged that almost every year Odisha faces disasters like floods, droughts, cyclones etc. Most of the population along the coastal area depends on agriculture and fisheries and both are affected by climate change. And hence migration is imminent.
  • Stakeholders discussed about the registration process of migrants that is being done by the Panchayati Raj department. Tracking of migrants through these registers will be a good move to understand the dynamics of migration.
  • Some adaptation success stories were also shared which included training opportunities which has ensured migration of skilled labour to even international destinations. This has seen a boost in the local economy owing to the remittances being sent.

Representatives from the Department of Environment and Forest, Climate Change Cell shared that the action plan for Odisha was done in 2010, following which it has been evaluated in terms of its successful implementation and a document has been published incorporating the activities of the department. A draft action plan on climate change for the period 2015 to 2020 has been uploaded online. Having a working experience in Odisha on Climate Change, Migration, and Adaptation, DECCMA was invited to share its comments on the draft document.

This stakeholder interaction has given DECCMA a chance to participate in processes which will have effect on the end-users of its research.

DECCMA India’s Household Survey in Mahanadi Delta

The DECCMA Household Survey went live on May 31 2016 and was completed on July 19 2016. A survey company was appointed (according to our survey protocol) and representatives from Jadavpur University, Chilika Development Authority, and Sansristi were present from the project.

Prior to this, training of enumerators, field testing of the questionnaire with the use of tablets, were done.

Households from fifty locations within our study area were selected for this survey based on migrant and non-migrant as emerged from our household listing activity. The survey team travelled to four locations in Bhadrak district, eight locations in Jagatsinghpur district, five locations in Kendrapara district, twelve locations in Khordha district, and twenty one locations in Puri district to complete this survey.

A total of 1427 households were surveyed which included both migrant and non-migrant households, and male and female respondents. DECCMA’s gender sensitive approach ensured that male enumerators interviewed male respondents and female enumerators interviewed female respondents.

The biggest challenge faced by the team during this activity was the heat wave. Odisha was suffering heat wave conditions since April and temperatures almost touched 50 degree Celsius during the survey. Necessary precautions were taken by carrying sufficient water and glucose. The afternoons were the worst and we had members from the survey team suffering blackouts due to the extreme heat. Some had to be hospitalised as well. Under such conditions, the survey had to be paused for a few days.

During the data collection phase, some locations were revisited to maximise the response percentage. This was done since during the main data collection phase, there were some households where members were not present or unavailable to give responses at our time of visit.

Simultaneously with the data collection, continued the data checking processes. The research team put in hard efforts to ensure that checking was done meticulously. The data from this survey will be guiding most of our research work.

Since the DECCMA Indian team works in two deltas (Indian Bengal Delta and Mahanadi Delta), learning from this survey in Mahanadi Delta will help us in implementing it in the survey for the Indian Bengal Delta.

The DECCMA-India team thanks all who have participated, guided, contributed, and helped in this Mahanadi Household Survey activity.

Out-migration and effects on women in the Mahanadi delta

DECCMA is committed to providing policy support to develop sustainable, gender-sensitive adaptations within deltaic environments. Taking a gender-sensitive approach to the research process, and ensuring that data can be analysed with a gender lens, are integral to achieving this aim.

Awareness of the importance of gender has increased as a result of global commitments, such as the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) and the Beijing Platform for Action. The recently-announced Sustainable Development Goals includes one where the aim is to achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls. Gender equality and empowerment of women also features in the text of the Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

At local level, however, gender differences are pervasive. Understanding context-specific differences in the roles of men and women, and the relations between them, is essential. Only when these are known is it possible to ensure that planned adaptations are equitable and contribute to gender equality.

In this clip, University of Southampton PhD researcher Giorgia Prati explains how she is investigating the effects of out-migration on women left behind in the Mahanadi delta, India.

Characteristics of migration in Satjalia Island in the Indian Bengal Delta

Migration is a complex phenomenon. DECCMA defines migration as “the process by which individuals or whole households leave their usual place of residence for another geographic location, usually crossing an administrative or national border and remaining for at least six months, usually as a result of a change in the relative attractiveness, real or perceived, of the usual place of residence with respect to the destination.”

At the same time, DECCMA recognises that migration is multi-dimensional. The duration and distance of migration vary, as do the migration patterns of men and women in different contexts. Dr Tuhin Ghosh and his colleagues from Jadavpur University in Kolkata have been investigating the nature of migration in Satjalia Island in the Indian Bengal delta.

Local residents in Satjalia island have been trained to undertake a participatory household survey to investigate the nature of migration patterns. Climate change and environmental change are among the stresses contributing to migration, as sea level rise is higher than average, and the high population density exacerbates those at risk when river embankments fail.

The island experiences a variety of migration types, by men and women. In-migration and out-migration are both occurring, and on both a seasonal and permanent basis. Just over half of the migrants are men who migrate on a seasonal basis in search of work. In this clip, Dr Ghosh explains the results from the nearly-3000 surveyed households.

The nature of migration, and the destinations, strongly reflects dominant roles for men and women. The majority of seasonal male migrants are working age (36-55) and their main destinations are peri-urban areas in other cities, where they are able to find work as labourers. The rate of migration of women is much lower, and the destinations are typically urban centres (of cities closer to Satjalia) where they can find work within the domestic and childcare spheres. More information on this project was profiled on the TransRe website in March 2016 in a blog on “Understanding internal migration patterns in the Indian Bengal delta”

Qualitative research training in India

qualitative research training

Qualitative research training

On Friday February 26, 2016, School of Oceanographic Studies, Jadavpur University (JU) organised a One Day Workshop on Introduction to Qualitative Research which was facilitated by Dr Colette Mortreux of University of Exeter.

The workshop had 26 participants out of which 16 were female participants. Most of the participants were young researchers who are either pursuing MPhil or PhD degrees from schools and departments of JU. There was also representation from Calcutta University and NGOs like WWF and DRCSC Kolkata.

Colette is a human geographer specialising in qualitative research methods and during her visit to India as a part of the DECCMA consortium to conduct resettlement field visit and interviews, she took time out to conduct this workshop. When multi-country projects function well, such effective exchanges between countries become possible thereby opening portals for knowledge sharing.

The workshop provided an introduction to Qualitative Research based on what it is, its strengths and weaknesses, its theoretical foundations, comparison with quantitative research. The workshop was evenly punctuated with activities which encouraged interactions among the group. The participants felt the interactions helped them to learn better. Adequate stress was laid on choosing the right method of for research design – deciding on the sample size and strategy, which method is best suited for what purpose. This gave ample clarity for the young researchers on the differences between when to use a focus group discussion and when to go for in-depth interviews. The issue of Ethics was discussed as involvement of human participants in research needs informed consent. Procedures for written/oral consent were discussed and ethical considerations during interviews were also laid stress upon.

Role of interviewer, practical tips for interviewing, tactfully combating challenges during the interviews and focus groups, how to make the respondents feel comfortable and ideas for group activities were shared.

Following the in-depth guidance on data collection, the workshop then steered towards the analysis of data and use of software to aid the analysis.

Lastly, the communication of findings was discussed and the workshop was summarised.
As a concluding activity, DECCMA brochures were distributed among the participants and a small talk was given on DECCMA’s research areas and objectives.

The workshop was closed by distributing certificates to all the participants and gratitude was extended to Dr Mortreux for conducting such a fruitful workshop.

A Tale of two Cities

2015 saw an acceleration of DECCMA with extensive work on the development of Household Surveys across four study deltas in India, Bangladesh and Ghana, looking at the component role climatic change might play in migration and adaptation. This work has been substantially supported by the outcomes of a sister project to DECCMA in the form of ESPA Deltas. Both of these projects were represented at the AGU December 2015 in San Francisco at a specific session relating to Delta research, called Sustainable Deltas: Multidisciplinary Analyses of Complex Systems II, Global Environmental Change (Primary Convener Irina Overeem CSDMS/INSTAAR on behalf of Belmont Deltas), with cross-referencing between the talks demonstrating a continuity of learning and development. The following were presented:

Hutton C.W., & Nicholls, R.J. & Allan, A. (2015), Migration in Vulnerable Deltas: A Research Strategy. AGU, 2015, San Francisco, 14-18th December

Nicholls, et. al. (Hutton, C.W) (2015). Ecosystem services and livelihoods in deltaic environments (Invited). AGU 2015, San Francisco, 14-18th December

Lazar, A. et. al. (Hutton, C.W) (2015). An integrated framework to assess plausible future livelihood and poverty changes in deltas: an application to coastal Bangladesh. AGU 2015, San Francisco, 14-18th December

Payo Garcia, A. & Hutton, C.W. (2015). Assessing the time scale response of Health, Livelihoods, Ecosystem Services and Poverty Alleviation in Populous Deltas. AAG, Chicago 2015

The presentations within the session were wide ranging and thought provoking with examples of papers and posters from highly developed contexts to regions of the developing world under extraordinary stress from environmental degradation and climatic changes. One common thematic approach that might be drawn from the session was the diversity and complexity of the social interaction across these landscape scale features with competing requirements for industry and food production as well as the socio-economic and cultural needs of the people who occupy the lands including the complex drivers of migration and urbanisation. The meeting was followed by a meal in down town San Francisco where, Profs Overeem and Nicholls lead a discussion on possible collaborative efforts that have continued from this meeting.

Drawing on a specific component of this discussion, namely that of land and water and the relation to food security, The DECCMA project was also presented as a case study at the Land and Water Days, November 2015 in Rome where a conference was jointly convened by FAO, IFAD and WFP as part of efforts aimed at reaching effective and lasting impacts for land and water actions on the ground. The event is presented as an opportunity to review policies, technologies and approaches to secure sustained improvements in support to activities on the ground; and foster exchanges of experience between countries and regions. The University of Southampton presented a detailed study of DECCMA in the “Land and Water assessment for identifying vulnerabilities and sustaining rural livelihoods” session entitled; Deltas, Vulnerability & Climate Change: Migration & Adaptation: Assessing vulnerability of populations to land and water shocks, with elements of the lessons learned in ESPA Deltas as an example of how remote sensing can be used to extract both social and biophysical data of relevance to planning in food security and livelihoods. The talk was well received and as well as ongoing established links with FAO (specifically John Latham NRL) has spawned some discussions and potential collaboration with WFP.

DECCMA Poster Competition Winner – Shouvik Das

poster competition winner

Winning poster

The winner of the PhD Category of the Poster Competition at the DECCMA 4th Consortium Workshop was Shouvik Das’ (Jadavpur University, India) poster ‘The implication of applying IPCC AR4 & AR5 framework for Vulnerability and Risk assessment in relation to Climate Change in the Indian Bengal Delta’.

The term ‘Vulnerability’ is used by the disaster risk reduction (DRR) community to describe the interaction of the physical and societal factors that contribute to disaster risk. This is closer to the IPCC AR4’s conceptual framework of vulnerability to climate change. The AR5 introduces a new approach and terminology which moves closer to the disaster risk concept, thus differing from the current understanding of vulnerability as expressed in the IPCC AR4. In this comparative study, different indicators based on AR4 and AR5 frameworks have been used to assess vulnerability (AR4) and risk (AR5) in the 51 Community Development Blocks of Indian Bengal Delta. The high score of ‘risk’ obtained through AR5 approach appears to be governed more by the climate induced hazards (like flood/cyclones). The external stressors of vulnerability (as conceptualized in AR4) comprise hazards as well as other climate variability as ‘potential hazard’. It also has a problem of neutralizing the impact of one specific hazard by the adaptive capacity to another potential hazard. The final results however show some disparity in scores in assessing ‘vulnerable’ zones and ‘risk’ zones. Sandeshkhali-II is assessed as the most vulnerable block (AR4) whereas Gosaba is found to be exposed to high risk (AR5) although both the blocks are spatially contiguous and geographically similar. The present study thus emphasizes efficacy of AR5 framework in assessing hazard specific risk zone which will be more suitable to correlate with impacts such as human migration or in designing appropriate hazard specific adaptation options.

Interview with the winner:
1. Why did you choose the topic for the poster?
Climate change acts as a ‘threat multiplier’ with a growing population and a deteriorating natural resource base in the deltaic environments. In recent years, Vulnerability or Risk Assessments are being used to identify climate change impact hotspots and to provide input for adaptation and development planning at different levels. Vulnerability or Risk Assessments being one of the thrust area of DECCMA, this poster could be useful, significant and interesting for all relevant ongoing research activities in the sphere of Disaster Management or Climate Change Adaptation. This study might also be helpful to compare the efficacies of IPCC AR 4 and AR 5 framework to apply in a particular research problem.

2. What data sources have you used for the analysis?
In Vulnerability or Risk Assessment, we use an integration of classified indicators to assess the interaction of human beings with physical and social surroundings at the Sub-District level (Community Development Blocks for India). Different bio-physical and socio-economic indicators have been used to conduct the study. The climate-related stress or extremes events like Flood Frequency (National Remote Sensing Centre, 2004-2014), Cyclone Intensity (Indian Meteorological Department, 1992-2009), Coastal Erosion (Landsat TM images, 2001 & 2011), Salinization (National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning) have been considered to determine Hazard (AR 5) and Exposure (AR 4) under different frameworks. The datasets of District Census Handbook (DCHB) and District Statistical Handbook (DSHB) of 2011 have been used to estimate Sensitivity and Adaptive Capacity (IPCC Contributing Factors) with their catalytic influences in the system.

3. What’s the significance of your conclusion?
Applying the AR 4 and AR 5 concept and framework on the same data set, two different blocks have been identified to be most vulnerable or exposed to highest risk. However, both the blocks are spatially contiguous and geographically similar. The results have been validated through ground truth survey and stakeholder engagements. It proves the efficacy of AR5 over the AR 4 framework. Moreover, the hazard specific risk assessment (AR 5) can be more appropriate and suitable method to correlate with impacts such as human migration, and thus appear to be more appropriate for designing hazard specific adaptation options.

Download the poster here: http://www.geodata.soton.ac.uk/deccma/uploads_working_papers/Das_S_In_The_implication_of_applying_IPCC_AR4_+_AR5_framwork_for_vulnerability_to_CC_in_the_Indian_Bengal_Delta,_India_20160125_035018.pdf

Dr Bernard Cantin’s visit to the Indian Sundarbans

bernard cantin visit

CARIAA director Bernard Cantin visiting the Sunderbans

CARIAA Program Leader Dr Bernard Cantin visited the Indian Sundarbans last month. As a part of the CARIAA family and DECCMA, we were lucky to host him on a trip to our study area.

On Friday the 20th of November, we set out early in the morning by road. After a round of self-introduction within the group, the areas we were passing by were introduced. Maps made their advent and the physical features of the areas were discussed. The journey by road was through the district of South 24 Parganas, a part of our study area of the Indian Bengal Delta (IBD). The demographic situation of the district as emerging from our DECCMA research was shared. Being a peri-urban area of the megacity Kolkata, those areas were the receiving areas of migrants as observed from secondary data analysis. We shared our learning from the DECCMA stakeholder workshops and focus group discussions about the employment opportunities in and around the area which lure in migrants from the islands of IBD. While sharing the findings we were rediscovering the nuances of the features of our study area. It was interesting for me as I was participating in an inter-active session and not trying to merely absorb from reports laden with graphs and tables. This rekindled in me the importance of the Research into Use component as the way knowledge is tailored and presented to the audience determines how the knowledge is accepted and finally put to use.

Amidst discussions, we reached Canning which presently houses the headquarters of the two community development blocks (sub-districts) of Canning I and II. Named after the erstwhile Governor General and Viceroy of India, Lord Canning, Canning now houses an abandoned port. Canning has its fate in the flow of the Matla River on whose bank it is situated. Due to siltation in the river, the port had to be abandoned and the last ship to have left Port Canning dates back to 1872. A local artist, Mr Kshitish Bishal, was kind enough to host us at his studio which houses his collection of historical artefacts obtained from the Sundarbans. Bricks from the different eras of the Indian history, the Holy Bible written in Bangla, little clay figurines was on display. We saw the skull of a water-buffalo, intact with its majestic curved horns, once a resident of Sundarbans but are now believed to be extinct. A collection of artefacts from Sundarbans could never be complete without something to do with a tiger. A plaster cast from a prominent pugmark holds a special place in the collection and it kindled the hope of sighting a tiger the next day when we venture into the forest. After enjoying tea here, we resumed our journey by road.

We reached Godkhali by noon and our boat plied through the Bidyadhari River. During our journey, we finished our lunch and went to the Sajnekhali Sundarban Tiger Reserve. We showed Dr Cantin the captive breeding of the highly endangered species of turtle, the Batagur Baska which was done successfully at this Interpretation Centre. Sunbathing Bengal Monitor Lizards, playful Spotted Deer and a shy crocodile let us glimpse at them. A tour around the Mangrove Interpretation Centre showcased the rich flora and fauna of the Indian Sundarbans, the different livelihoods that the residents of the islands undertake and the precarious situations that they brave every day to make both end meet.

Following this tour, we reached our hotel where we were greeted by the cordial staff. It was still some time till sundown and we made full use of the daylight by taking a walk down the temporary mud embankment and showing Dr Cantin the various features of the Jamespur Village of Satjelia Island. The use of solar energy in this island is a development option that many residents enjoy. We shared with Bernard the local belief in the goddess Bon Bibi (literally the lady of the forests) who is regarded as the spirit of the forests and is worshipped by Hindus and Muslims alike. Anyone venturing into the forests worships her to keep them safe from the dangers that lurk in there. The setting sun beyond the veil of mangroves and the waters guided us back to our hotel. In the evening, a local tribal dance troupe performed for us. Echoing the Brechtian notion of “breaking the fourth wall” the performers invited us to sing and dance with them and it was a fun moment for us all. After this, we sat together for informal discussions. I thought that when a Program Leader of a research project and professors and researchers unite over informal discussions, it would entail technical and scientific topics. How wrong I was! Our discussion was instead ruled by Philosophy, Spirituality, History, Ethnography, Politics, Religion, Art and Literature – the interactions of these across the two axes of Space and Time. While sharing our Indian history, it was a case of rediscovering the Self. I was learning a lot and felt enriched. After dinner, we retired for the day hoping to spot a tiger in the forests the next day!

Early morning we left for the forest in our boat. Bernard informed us that he went for a walk and also visited Bon Bibi’s temple since we were venturing into the forests! We were touched by this warm gesture. The clear blue sky, various species of Mangroves and the still waters were greeting us. The effect of erosion on the mangroves was prominent as many were succumbing to the tidal waters. I knew that many of these trees would not be around the next time I visit the area. A Lesser Adjutant Stork (locally called Madan Tak) spread it majestic wings right in front of our boat and perched on the top of a tree prompting the cameras to go into frenzy! Different species of Kingfishers, cranes, doves, kites were spotted during our journey. Crocodiles and Bengal Monitor lizards were also basking in the morning sun along the banks. Spotted deer with antlers were out in the forest munching on young leaves. A rare moment for all of us was when we spotted an alert fawn whose eyes spelt out the danger it was sensing. Soon the doe emerged from the shrubs and shielded its young. We were waiting with bated breath to see what the mother and the young were apprehensive of. The first thought was what if it was a tiger but what emerged from the shrubs was a Wild Boar! We finished our lunch and went to the Sudhanyakhali Reserve Forest. From atop the watch tower we spotted a number of errant monkeys, swimming Bengal Monitor lizard, deer and a Little Black Cormorant who was drying its wings on a branch. It was time for us to start our journey back to Godkhali where the car was waiting for us. Our tour guide said that we might not have seen a tiger but sighting so many animals and birds within a span of few hours is rare.

We reached Godkhali and began our journey by road to take Bernard to the airport for his flight back to Canada. I had read about the differences between a Boss and a Leader but this was my practical lesson as Bernard asked for my feedback on the last CARIAA reporting template and whether the KM Platform is found useful by my team members, discussed on how RiU can be made effective, how communications can be improved between the four consortia etc. He was impressed to learn that DECCMA has local coordinators in each country of research to better facilitate coordination between country teams and the lead team at University of Southampton.

We said our goodbyes once we reached Kolkata, thanked him for taking time out to visit the Sundarabans and invited him for a longer trip the next time so that we get to take him to the Mahanadi Delta as well. For all of us, it was a weekend well spent amidst nature and refreshing discussions away from our desktops and deadlines!

Prof. Sugata Hazra, Dr Tuhin Ghosh, Dr Somnath Hazra, Subhajit Ghosh and Sumana Banerjee were the DECCMA India members who hosted Dr. Bernard Cantin.

Learning from DECCMA India’s District Level Stakeholder Workshop for Kendrapara, Mahanadi Delta

learning from deccma india stakeholder workshop

Learning from DECCMA India stakeholder workshop

Held on September 1, 2015 at Gupti, Rajnagar, Kendrapara District of Odisha, for Mahanadi delta, the objective of the Stakeholder Workshop was to sensitise different stakeholders about DECCMA seeking their responses and knowledge on the migration, adaptation, governance in the context of climate change which they are facing. The workshop was organised by Chilika Development Authority (research partner in the DECCMA India team) and was attended by representatives from Jadavpur University along with representation from 19 organisations including Government Departments, NGOs and SHGs.

Out of the 43 participants, 15 women and 9 men were residents of the Kendrapara district and 19 male participants had an exposure about this district and also provided insight about the neighbouring district of Jagatsinghpur which has similar bio-physical aspects as that of Kendrapara.

For better understanding and participation from the stakeholders, the deliberation was carried out in local language i.e. Odia.

A group activity was organised to ensure effective participation from the stakeholders on the issues of migration, adaptation and governance in the context of climate change.

The following are some of the key responses from the stakeholders –

Reasons for Migration:
• Lack of returns from agriculture which is attributed to the vagaries of climate change
• Environmental regulations for traditional fisherman for conservation of Olive Ridley turtles
• Limited employment opportunity in the district because industries are located in the other districts
• Erosion of the coastline and the river bank have led to migration of residents from the villages of Satabhaya, Pentha and Jaudia

Adaptations option active in the area:
• Cyclone shelter constructed by Odisha State Disaster Management Authority (OSDMA)
• Height of the saline embankment has been raised
• Geo Tube embankment to prevent coastal erosion at Pentha
• Relocation of villagers from Satabhya to Bagapatia

Suggestions for Adaptation Options:
• Strengthening of saline embankment in all vulnerable areas
• Establishment of skill development training schools for men and women
• Facilitation of creek irrigation system
• Promotion of salt tolerant paddy and climate resilient variety of agricultural product

Problem/issues related to Governance
• Lack of political will
• Inadequate fund mobilisation
• Delay in programme implementation due to lack of coordination between departments
• Crop insurance has not rendered results as was expected

Gender sensitivity
• Women, children, elderly and people with special needs are not considered as target groups during planning and implementations
• In-situ adaptation options like training facilities and income generation schemes are needed
• Although a number of SHGs are active in the area, non-cooperation of financial institutions to extend loan to SHGs is also experienced

Most of the stakeholders expressed views that the issues brought forth by DECCMA are highly relevant to their daily reality. The stakeholders, both men and women alike were glad to see the gender component being effectively addressed in DECCMA. The women expressed their gratitude to DECCMA for having their voices heard.

The workshop was a success due to the active participation from the stakeholders and it was concluded with prospect of continued engagement.